Researchers analyzed thousands of skeletons to get a general idea of the health of pre-Columbus Americans. They learned that in general they were fairly healthy 1,000 years before Columbus, but health was on a slow decline since then (interesting that EUrope was going through plagues and such in the Medevial ages while the American’s health was declining). Societies that relied on farming were generally less healthy, and the navites along the Brazilian coast most healthy (plains INdisans were also healthy). Urban envinronments appeared in America 2000 years ago, and agriculture 7000 years ago. And like with the Middle East, the appearance of these things match a decline in health. Also, in the Mayan culture, which had more urban and agriculture, people were less healthy.
Trees are living things, and how amazing that sequoias can live to be 3,000 years old. So I feel some pity for the 1,000 year old tree that fell in California this week. The tree was perhaps a centry old when William the Conquerer crossed the English Channel to conquer England and build The Tower of London in the 11th century (the battle was in 1066). It was 500 years old when the Europeans stumbled upon — and exterminated — the Americas. How crazy, how awesome and how sad that the tree has lived through all that and suddenly is gone. With all they now know about trees and their ability to communicate with each other, I wonder if trees have a soul that is undetectable by humans. Gosh, the world is a strange place. RIP tree…
Reading Hershey, by D’Antonio, which is ultimately about the Hershey school but with substantial amounts dedicated to the Hershey History. Hershey was born to a dreamer, charistmatic and a bit of a snake-oil salesman father and a menninite mother (an odd combination). As a young boy, he went to work at a confectioner (candy shoppe) which were popular at the time, and with his mom’s intervention learned to be a candy maker. After four unsuccessful tries financed by his mom’s successful farmer family, he found success with a caramel formula he found in Denver then produced locally in Lancaster (PA). His mom and aunt’s presence were instrumental in his early successees, and he became quite weatlhy when a London importer stumbled upon his caramel and made bulk orders shortly before Hershey’s business went under. In other words, he was lucky although a hard worker. Eventually, he sold his caramel business for 1M to a competitor, and bought land in Derry’s Creek to construct a huge factory and town for his chocolates, which were still experimental, dominated by the Swiss (and Cadbury) but new to Americans. As his huge investment (1M) neared completion, his loyal worker perfected the recipe for milk choclate (earning a 100 USD bonus), and the factory (and town) became a monstrous success. He used some of this money to build a school for boys at a time when many orphanages were being built to serve the high numbers of poor orphans.
Hershey was lucky and had the support of his family, but also was a hard worker who was dedicated to his craft of making candy, and took a substantial risk in building the what would be the town of Hershey (200K of his 1M windfall was spent in acquiring the land alone, and several of his supports more or less called him crazy for taking on the risk).
This is a fascinating, well-researched, well-written/told story.
Watching Break Bad again – love that show!!! Observations:
- He is a zombie.
- Shows us early on that he was a Noble prize winning scientist 20 years earlier.
- His wife seems content, despite the poverty. They will eventually reverse roles (she is dispirited and dead, he is alive).
- He desmontrates the bonson burner in glass, which is a flame. As he says it is change, he is spritzing colors into the flame, he is alive. Then he turns the bonson burner off, sighs, and he is dead again.
- After his diagnosis, he is tossing lit matches (the flame going out) into a nearly and dead-leaf strewn pool. As he becomes Heizenberg, the pool will be clean, then lit. The pool is the blue meth, which is his light/life/power, and which a depressed wife will immerse herself in when she realizes she can’t control Walt’s meth making. Later, when they are staying in the hotel while he is making millions, he will sit next to the massive and glowing blue hotel pool. He does not throw matches into it, he stares at it.
- His DEA agent bursts into the lower floor pursuing the drug dealers, leaving Walt unattended in the car. They are clueless that Capn Cook (Jesse) is in the upper floor, and that he and Walt have seen each other, like later they are clueless that Walt and Jesse are working together.
- Jesse is in red: red sweatshirt, red car, red motorcycle, even red/chili pepper in his meth. But as Walt approaches him that first night, he is covering his red car with a blue tarp, just like the blue pool and the blue meth. I am assuming this is Walt’s blue covering up his old red life. Later, as Walt pulls into Jesse’s house with the meth equipment, Jesse is wearing a big blue jacket over a red shirt, and a touch of red shows from under his blue hat. When he sits in his red car, it has blue seats. I love this!!
- Jesse comes up with the idea for RV, since he doesn’t “sh** where (he) eat(s).”
- Jesse asks, not with kindness, “Why are you doing this?” Walt, standing against a mountain backdrop, replies, “I am awake.”
- The next scene, Walt is helping his son try on blue jeans in a blue dressing room. His wife is dressed in blue. He then physically confronts the larger-than-he bullies in the store – and wins.
- There is a lot of yellow and green. Green in the house yellow shirts, green clothes, green brush, green car – symbolic? For example, blue and yellow make green? Might be a reach but there is enough of it that it can’t be coincidence.
Read about the Proclamation of 1763, which I never heard before…
After the British defeated the French in The French and Indian War (aka The Seven Years War), the British began harsh treatment of the Indians. The Indians, largely led by Pontiac, began rebelling and a number of battles erupted, some which the Indians slaughtered British and some where the British slaughtered the Indians. In 1763, partially influenced by this (and partially to keep the colonists close to the shores where the “motherland” would have more control over them), Britain enacted The Proclamation of 1763, which banned colonists from settling on Indian lands East of the Appalachians. For the Americans, who had helped defeat the Indians in part for access to these lands, this would be the first of several acts (such as The Stamp Act) that would drive a wedge between they and the British, and were the first seeds of the American Revolution.
During the American War of Independence:
In 1777, the British devised a new strategy: they would divide-and-conquer the colonies by splitting them in half and breaking their resolve.
Three British armies were to meet in Albany (New York) as part of this plan, but only one of the armies made it and was quickly surrounded by superior American forces at Saratoga. Over the next two weeks, the British tried two attempts to break free in the Battle(s) of Saratoga, but were repelled (in large part because of Benedict Arnold’s heroics while fighting for the American army) and forced to surrender.
This was a pivotal victory for the Americans and perhaps the most pivotal moment of the entire war. It was a sign that the Americans might win the war, in turn encouraging the Europeans to support the Americans and the French in particular to join forces with the Americans.
Following the victory, the Americans built a monument in Benedict Arnold’s honor, a monument that is still at Saratoga today.
Shortly after Jamestown was founded, Plymouth was settled. For a couple of decades, the population grew relatively slowly, with the Dutch and the English being the two primary countries colonizing the area, primarily for the fur trade. But in 5 years in the 1630s, New England’s population expanded from 300 to 5000 in a great migration. Soon, people were moving inland, particularly to the Connecticut River valley. Source: Empires, Furs and Fortune.